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New Orleans: Place, Meaning, and Context (UNH Durham): Citation Styles and Tools

An honors inquiry course that uses a rigorous interdisciplinary and participatory approach to studying America's most misunderstood city.

Why Cite?

Research papers generally build on the work of previous writers and researchers. Whenever you write a paper (or create a website, etc.) and use the material of another source, you must document that source. If you don't, you may be guilty of plagiarism. 

Documentation credits the creator of the original work and provides the necessary information for readers to consult the same material. 

The citation style you use determines how your citations should be formatted. Turabian and Chicago Style are often used by historians.

Plagiarism and You

Plagiarism, as defined by the 2010-2011 edition of UNH’s Student Rights, Rules and Responsibilities:

 The unattributed use of the ideas, evidence, or words of another person, or the conveying of the false impression that the arguments and writing in a paper are the student’s own. Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to the following:

1. the acquisition by purchase or otherwise of a part or the whole of a piece of work which is represented as the student’s own;

2. the representation of the ideas, data, or writing of another person as the student’s own work, even though some wording, methods of citation, or arrangement of evidence, ideas, or arguments have been altered;

3. concealment of the true sources of information, ideas, or argument in any piece of work.

Chicago Manual of Style Online

The Chicago Manual of Style, produced by the University of Chicago Press, sets the standard for the format of scholarly publications. Chicago style (as it is known) is used by researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, particularly in the humanities. Citations using Chicago style allow readers to locate the materials used in your research. Therefore, your citations should be as accurate and complete as possible.

Chicago Manual of Style Online

University of Chicago Press' Chicago Style Q&A

University of Chicago Press' Tools (e.g. manuscript preparation, proof readings, and citation quick-guide)

University of Georgia Libraries Chicago Style Bibliographic Format for References (includes examples of both author-date and documentary-note styles)

Bedford St. Martin's Using Chicago Style to Cite and Document Sources

Modern Language Association Style Online

In this class, you are asked to use the MLA (Modern Language Association) Style for documenting sources.


MLA recommends in-text citations that refer readers to a list of works cited. The in-text citation names the author of the source, often in a signal phrase, and gives a page number in parentheses. At the end of the paper, a list of works cited provides publication information about the source; the list is alphabetized by authors’ last names or, if there is no author listed, by the title of the work.


RefWorks is a web based citation management and bibliography creator tool.

Why use RefWorks?  Because it can help you...

  • create bilbiographies and format citations in papers quickly, saving you time and effort;
  • create, organize, and manage your own personal database of articles and resources online, accessible from anywhere via the web, for one or more research projects;
  • import references easily from many databases;
  • share references with others; and
  • collaborate with others on one or more projects.

See the UNH Library's webpage on how to sign up for RefWorks.


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Bill Ross
Special Collections Librarian

Office: Dimond Library 101D
603 862-0346