"Open science is the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society."
By Andreas E. Neuhold (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
"Open Data are online, free of cost, accessible data that can be used, reused and distributed provided that the data source is attributed and shared alike."
Open Government Data
Open Data Licensing
Here are a couple of resources that will help you begin to learn more about open science and open data: