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IA 501: Asian Challenge to Global Order (Spring 2022)

Information and resources for Mr. Reardon's course for Global Issues in International Affairs (UNH Durham)

Three types of resources

In general, there are three types of resources or sources of information: primary, secondary, and tertiary.  It is important to understand these types and to know what type is appropriate for your coursework prior to searching for information.

It's sometimes difficult to distinguish among these three types and they do vary by discipline and subject..

  1. Primary sources are original materials on which other research is based; for example,
    • original works (written, spoken, recorded, visual) – poems, diaries, court records, interviews, surveys, polls, newsreel footage, newspaper articles about events, art works, statistical information, and original research/fieldwork; and
    • original research published in scholarly/academic journals
  2. Secondary sources are those that describe, critique, or analyze primary sources; for example:
    • books and articles that interpret, review, or synthesize original research/fieldwork
    • sometimes reference materials – dictionaries, encyclopedias, textbooks
    • review articles in the sciences and social sciences
  3. Tertiary sources are those used to organize and locate secondary and primary sources. Can also be compilations or highly distilled summaries offer factual representation rather than viewpoints or critiques.
    • Indexes – provide citations that fully identify a work with information such as author, titles of a book, article, and/or journal, publisher and publication date, volume and issue number and page numbers.
    • Abstracts – summarize the primary or secondary sources,
    • Databases – are online indexes that usually include abstracts for each primary or secondary resource, and may also include a digital copy of the resource.
    • sometimes reference materials – dictionaries, encyclopedias, chronologies, directories

Scholarly & Peer Reviewed Articles

Scholarly (aka academic) articles are written by and for academics, researchers, and experts in the specific topic or broader subject area of the article.

Peer reviewed (aka refereed) articles are those which have been reviewed prior to publication by other experts in the topic of the article. Often reviewers are external (not members of the journal's editorial staff or board).

Peer Review?


  • the database record for the article, which sometimes indicates whether a journal uses peer review
  • the journal website, especially under About Us or Information for Authors (Example)

Note: Not everything in a journal is peer reviewed; letters to the editor, book reviews, news items, and other short works without listed references are typically not peer reviewed the way more substantive articles are.